April 6, 2016

Computer Hardware Timeline

The development of computing devices in chronological order. (This list is an ongoing project and subject to change, there is still a lot to do, but if you would like to add anything please contact me)

2400BC

Abacus (Babylonia)

100BC

Antikythera mechanism Early Analog device.
Astrolabe (Greece)

1620-30

Slide rule Analog device

1642

Pascals Calculator Analog device

1725

Bouchon -Paper tape First use of paper tape to program looms

1786

J.H. Muller Difference Engine Engineer in the Hessian army conceived the idea of a difference engine
(Muller never received funding to build this engine)

1801

Jacquard punch card Chain of punch cards to program looms

1820

Arithmometer First digital mechanical calculator

1822

Babbage Difference Engine Proposed mechanical general purpose computer
(Babbage recieve £1700 from government to start project but it was abandonned in 1842)

1837

Babbage Analytical Engine Proposed mechanical general purpose computer
(Charles Babbage never actual built this device)

1885-90

Hollerith tabulator Electromechanial puncard tabulating machine

1936

Alan Turing Principles of modern computing described in the seminal paper.

1911

Computing-Tabulating-Recording CompanyThe start of IBM

1924

IBM name adopted CTR changes name to Internationl Business Machines.

1941

Konrad Zuse -Z3 Worlds first electromechanical computer.

1942

Atanasoff–Berry computer (ABC) First Automatic electronic digital computer
(The ABC was not programmable nor Turing complete)

1943

Colossus Computer World’s first programmable, electronic, digital computer

1944

IBM Harvard Mark I IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator(ASCC)

1946

ENIAC -Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Was the first electronic general-purpose programmable computer.

Depending who you talk to there are some opinions about who made the first
working digital computer, for a more in-depth discussion follow this link.

Comparisons with other early programmable digital computers

1951

WITCH Wolverhampton Instrument for Teaching Computing from Harwell (WITCH)

1953

Manchester Transistor digital computer
IBM 701 mainframes IBMs 700 series Mainframe coputers (Valve based)

1954

TRIDIC Transistor digital computer

1956

Metrovick 950 Built from 1956 onwards by British company Metropolitan-Vickers

1958

IBM 7000 mainframes IBMs 7000 series Mainframe coputers (Transistor based)

1959

DEC PDP1 First computer in Digital Equipment Corporation’s PDP series

1962

Atlas Computer Development between the University of Manchester, Ferranti, and Plessey

1964

IBM System 360 IBMs highly suscesful mainframe computer.
CDC 6600 computer Control Data Corporations flagship mainframe
IBM Data Cell Drive Announced Random access device that could store up to 400 million alphanumeric characters

1965

DEC PDP 8 The first successful commercial minicomputer. DEC introduced it on March 22, 1965 for a price of $18,500
IBM 1130 IBMs least expensive computer at the time, more info at IBM1130.org

1966

HP 2116A Hewlett-Packard entered the mini computer market
ILLIAC IV First attempts at a massively parallel computer system

1968

Mouse The first ball-based computer mouse in 1968, Telefunken Rollkugel RKS 100-86 for their TR 86 process computer system.

1969

Data General Nova The Nova was a popular 16-bit minicomputer built by the American company Data General it was packaged into a single rack mount case and had enough power to do most simple computing tasks.

Honeywell 316 The H-316 was used by Charles H. Moore to develop the first complete, stand-alone implementation of Forth at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, they were also used as ARPANET Interface Message Processor

1970

DEC PDP 11

1971

8″ floppy diskThe first floppy disks, developed in the late 1960s & came available in IBM PCs

1972

Atari founded
Cray Research founded

1973

Micral first microprocessor PC

1974

Altair 8800
Data General Eclipse

1975

Olivetti P6060

1976

Tandem Computers
5.25″ floppy disk Shugart Associates introduve the first 5.25″ floppy

1977

Apple II
5.25″ floppy

1978

DEC VAX 11

1979

Atari 400, 800

1980

Seagate hard disk drive

1981

IBM PC

1982

Commodore 64
3.5″ floppy Sony introduce the 3.5″ floppy diskette, used in the Sony SMC70, it quickely became the de-facto standard for perosnal computers.

1983

Apple Lisa

1984

Apple Mac
Apple Lisa 2

1985

PC Limited

1986

Tandem Nonstop VLX

1987

Thinking Machine CM2
Tera Computer Founded

1988

Dell founded
[3.5″ disk]

1989

NeXT Founded

1990

ETA10
CD-R

1991

Apple Switches to PowerPC

1992

HP 95LX
Palmtop PC

1993

Intel PPGA

1994

VESA Local Bus

1995

IBM Deep Blue chess computer

1996

USB 1.0

1997

Compaq buys Tandem
CD-RW

1998

iMac

2000

USB 2

2001

Apple iPod

2005

Mac Mini

2006

Apple transition to Intel processor

2007

Apple iPhone 1

2008

USB 3.0

2010

Apple iPad
Apple iPhone 4

2011

Apple iPhone 4s

2012

Apple iPhone 5
Raspberry Pi 1
MicroSoft Surface

2013

Apple iPhone 5C & 5S

2014

Apple iPhone 6 & 6+

2015

Apple Watch Apple iPhone 6S& 6S+

2016

Apple iPhone SE
Raspberry Pi 3
BBC Microbit


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